HTML Fundamentals


HTML Fundamentals

HTML – Hypertext Markup Language

Created By -Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (Conscil European pour la Recherche Nucleare), European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva in 1992.

HTML is special formatting language that defines or produces the appearance and content of a web pages or applications. It is not a programming language like C or C++, it is a markup language which generate documents and those are interpreted by a program(software) called Browsers (e.g. Firefox, Chrome, etc.)

HTML Evolution 

  • HTML 1.0  – It was the 1st version of HTML released by Tim Berners-Lee in 1993.
  • HTML 2.0 – It was released by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) in 1995 and was the 1st official HTML Standards.
  • HTML 3.0 – Is is upgraded version of HTML 2.0 with many new tags. It was unofficial version.
  • HTML 3.2 – It was next official version of HTML released by W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) in 1996. It provided support for tables, text flow around images image maps, applets and many more new attributes and tags.
  • HTML 4.0 – It was released by W3C in 1997 with revision in 1998. It provides backward compatibilities with older versions of HTML. It provided support for frames, object and embedded tags. It also provided support for style sheet(CSS), enhanced table and scripting languages (JavaScript). HTML 4.01 was released in 1999 to fix bugs in HTML 4.0.
  • HTML5 – It is the current version of HTML, was released in 2008. This version has added new features and make it more readable on mobile devices as well.

Major Terminologies 

  • Web Browser – It is an application program that is used to view requested web page (website/web apps). Examples- Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, Safari, etc.
  • Web Server – It is a software application which serves the requested web page to the client (web users). Examples- Apache, IIS, Nginx, etc.
  • URL – Uniform Resource Locator identifies the exact address of the requested website on Internet. URL consists of following parts :-
    Protocol://domainname : portnumber /FilePath (most of the time port number is default and opted out of the URL)
  • Protocol:- It identifies the method that the server uses to respond to the request. Common URL protocols are HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol), etc.
  • Domain Name:- This part of URL tells the browser which server to connect. Every computer on Internet consists of unique IP address, and domain name is related to some IP address, domain name must be translated to IP address while serving the request.
  • Port Number:- This part is optional. Each server provides some services to clients through numbered ports. F.g. If a server is running a web server as well as a email server then the web server should be available on the port number 80 and email server would be available on the port number 25. Port number 80 is the standard HTTP port number.
  • File Path:- It is the specific path of file on the server.

Structure of HTML Document

<!DOCTYPE html>

<!– This section contains title and supplementary information about the page –>
<title>Title of the document</title>


<!–The content of the document…… –>




!DOCTYPE – All HTML documents must start with a <!DOCTYPE> declaration. The declaration is not an HTML tag. It is an “information” to the browser about what document type to expect. In HTML5, the declaration is simple:- 

<!DOCTYPE html>

<HTML> – It specifies the document as a web page that can be seen in the browser. All other tags must  contains within <HTML> and </HTML>.

<HEAD> – The Head section specifies descriptive information about the web page.

<TITLE> The Title tag specifies title of the web page.

<BODY> – The Body element contains the actual contents of HTML document that can be seen by the end user. All the tags of content must contains within <Body> and </Body>.

Best Tools for Practice

Free Tools :- VS Code, Notepad++, etc

Paid:- Sublime, Atom, etc

Recommended Browser :- Firefox and Chrome.

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